All posts by Rafiki Technology

We learned a ton in school, on the job, but also from great technical insights that others shared on various platforms. We are just giving it back and glorifying Jesus Christ, the Inventor of all human beings. Please note that all information shared on or through our site is of good faith and is not intended to cause any harm individuals, groups, organizations, or devices. Just to be clear: you assume all responsibility for anything you do; we are not liable for anything that should go wrong.

Apple TroubleshootingLittle Tipsmacbook

How to Show (Unhide) the Library Folder on Mac

To display your Library folder in your user home folder,

  • In Finder, go to your user’s home folder (usually similar to your username on the computer), then while you have that open in Finder,
    • go to the View menu in your menu bar,
    • click on Show View Options, then
    • in the new window that comes up, check the box next to Show Library Folder

That should make your Library folder visible among the other folders inside your user home folder.

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Little TipsPythonWeb Development

Python, AttributeError: ‘module’ object has no attribute ‘config’

Four years ago, when I first started learning Python, I came across a problem that would later on become a “Famous Question” on StackOverflow. You may be reading this article because you encountered the same problem.

Traceback (most recent call last): File “C:\Users\myname\documents\visual studio 2010\Projects\PythonApplication 1\PythonApplication1\RunSikuliOnVM.py”, line 97, in logging.config.dictConfig(LOG_DICT_CONFIG_OnVM) AttributeError: ‘module’ object has no attribute ‘config’ Press any key to continue . . .

So, I will quickly suggest you check what turned out to be my problem.

I had imported a module into my code and later on made reference to that module by calling a specific attribute, but there was no such attribute in the module. Or at least so thought my Python interpreter. The quick fix for the error that I had gotten turned out to clear the cache of my interpreter. An example of how to do that with an interpreter is in the documentation for PyCharm.

This seems to be what is meant by the Python 3 documentation when it warns that “multiple evaluations of the same attribute reference may yield different objects.” I extrapolate and conclude that the error I am observing is somewhat of a “different” result I am getting.

Now for those interested in understanding the AttributeError for its own sake, another part of the Python documentation describes the exception in these terms:

exception AttributeError :Raised when an attribute reference (see Attribute references) or assignment fails. (When an object does not support attribute references or attribute assignments at all, TypeError is raised.)

 

The problem with the case at hand is that the config module does have a config attribute. This is why I posit that it is the caching issue that is the problem here since the interpreter may be referring to a totally different module than the logging module your code may be calling in this instance.

Note: This article is still in development even though it has been published to offer some beginning of a solution to those dealing with the AttributeError: ‘module’ object has no attribute ‘config’ exception.

Wi-Fi Protected Access II (WPA2) Vulnerability Paper
AntivirusMalwareModemsNetworkingRouters

Wi-Fi Protected Access II (WPA2) Vulnerability – All Your Wi-Fi Devices Might Need A Security Patch

UPDATE3: On a website dedicated to the “Key Reinstallation Attacks,” https://www.krackattacks.com/, the researcher who brought attention to this vulnerability describes what it is, presents a demo of the attack against an Android device as client, and suggests practical steps in a rich Q&A article.

UPDATE2: More companies have updates available. Microsoft also has released an update for client devices. (Source: Pileum Corporation)

If you have a Meraki access point, they have released a patch to address this issue. See below link for more information.
If you have an Aerohive access point, they have released a patch to address this issue. See below link.
SonicWALL has announced that their firewalls and access points are not vulnerable to the flaws in WPA2.
Cisco has released patches for some of their products that are affected. You can check for those products and updates as they are released here:
Microsoft has released a patch that provides additional protection on the client workstation. We recommend that this be installed on all workstations immediately.

UPDATE1: Several Wi-Fi AP manufacturers have started developing and releasing Updates. Please check the CERT website below for updates. One of the most recent ones is Meraki access point.

In a research paper titled “Key Reinstallation Attacks: Forcing Nonce Reuse in WPA,” Leuven, Belgium researchers Mathy Vanhoef and Frank Piessens just proved that WPA2 handshake traffic can be manipulated to induce nonce and session key reuse. Here is an overview of the announcement from CERT:

Wi-Fi Protected Access II (WPA2) handshake traffic can be manipulated to induce nonce and session key reuse, resulting in key reinstallation by a wireless access point (AP) or client. An attacker within range of an affected AP and client may leverage these vulnerabilities to conduct attacks that are dependent on the data confidentiality protocols being used. Attacks may include arbitrary packet decryption and injection, TCP connection hijacking, HTTP content injection, or the replay of unicast and group-addressed frames.

The simplest solution is to install updates provided by your Wi-Fi device vendor.

More on this here:

AntivirusMalwareWindows PC

CCleaner 5.33 and CCleaner Cloud version 1.07.3191 Under Malware Attack

In an article on their website, Piriform, a company recently acquired by Avast, published the following apology.

Dear CCleaner customers, users and supporters,

We would like to apologize for a security incident that we have recently found in CCleaner version 5.33.6162 and CCleaner Cloud version 1.07.3191. A suspicious activity was identified on September 12th, 2017, where we saw an unknown IP address receiving data from software found in version 5.33.6162 of CCleaner, and CCleaner Cloud version 1.07.3191, on 32-bit Windows systems. Based on further analysis, we found that the 5.33.6162 version of CCleaner and the 1.07.3191 version of CCleaner Cloud was illegally modified before it was released to the public, and we started an investigation process. We also immediately contacted law enforcement units and worked with them on resolving the issue. Before delving into the technical details, let me say that the threat has now been resolved in the sense that the rogue server is down, other potential servers are out of the control of the attacker, and we’re moving all existing CCleaner v5.33.6162 users to the latest version. Users of CCleaner Cloud version 1.07.3191 have received an automatic update. In other words, to the best of our knowledge, we were able to disarm the threat before it was able to do any harm.

Technical description
An unauthorized modification of the CCleaner.exe binary resulted in an insertion of a two-stage backdoor capable of running code received from a remote IP address on affected systems.

While more articles on this subject can be found on Spiceworks, a very commendable article about the incident was published by the The Thalos group who first discovered the breach into Avast’s servers.

Disk ManagementWindows PC

How to Restore Computer to Factory Settings Using Acer eRecovery

When a computer is dead because of software malfunction or operating system failure, there are numerous solutions that can be attempted. Ultimately one of the solutions is to restore the computer to its original state also known as factory settings. This article presents the steps for performing the factory restore using a special partition that comes on Acer computers (we have no affiliation with Acer, but just wanted to make this help note available. If your Acer Veriton computers have a recovery partition, you can launch the eRecovery tool by following these steps.

  1. Power down the computer. If necessary, you can force the computer to power down by pressing and holding the power button until all the lights are off.
  2. Power up the compter and then immediately press and hold the Alt and F10 keys on your keyboard.
  3. After a short moment, the should startup and offer you the choice of booting from a specified partition.
  4. Press enter and then follow the prompts after eRecovery is launched.

Once your system is up and running, you can consider restoring a backup of your system as long as you are sure you would not be reproducing the problem (e.g. putting an infection back on your computer).

Thanks!

Little TipsWindows 10 TipsWindows PC

How to Record and Capture Every Step You Take and Click in Windows – Problem Steps Recorder

Have you ever wondered how to record all the steps that you went through to get to an error in a program you are using on Windows? There is an app for that! Like, literally, though! Microsoft shares the following guide on their support page.

Pro-Tip: What is cool is that you can use this application to record the steps on how to use a new piece of software to your friend or family member who asks. And if you are in enterprise, this is a handy tool for designing a Standard Operating Procedure manual.

To record and save steps on your computer

  1. To open Steps Recorder, select the Startbutton, and then select Windows Accessories > Steps Recorder (in Windows 10), or Accessories > Problem Steps Recorder (in Windows 7 or Windows 8.1).
  2. Select Start Record.
  3. Go through the steps to reproduce the problem you’re trying to diagnose. You can pause and resume the recording at any time.
  4. (Optional) As you record, select Add Comment, use your mouse to select the part of the screen that you want to comment on, type your comment, and then select OK.
  5. When you’re done, select Stop Record.
  6. Review the record of the steps you followed to make sure it shows what you want it to show. Select Save, name the .zip file, choose where to save it, and then select Save. Now you can attach and send this .zip file to the person helping you troubleshoot the problem on your PC. It can be viewed in any web browser.

To adjust settings

  1. In Steps Recorder, select the down arrow next to the Help button, and then select Settings.
  2. You can change the following:
    • Output location.If you don’t want to be prompted for a location and file name every time you save a file, select Browse to set a default location and file name.
    • Enable screen capture.Select No if you don’t want to capture screen shots—for example, if the screen might reveal personal information that you don’t want to share. The app will still record a text description of your steps.
    • Number of recent screen captures to store.The default is 25 screens, so if you need to record more than that, increase this number.

Please note that this application will not record text that you type in fields, some programs will not work with this app if they fill up the screen, the settings you make for your new recording will not be permanent. When you close the Steps Recorder or Problem Steps Recorder app, the settings you made for the session will be lost.

If your Windows System does not have this app or if there are functionalities you need, the site alternative to suggests some options.

Little TipsmacbookWindows PC

How To Re-Open the Tab You Just Closed on Chrome, Firefox, or Internet Explorer

Did you just accidentally close the web browser tab you meant to keep open? You can get it back with a quick shortcut.

On Windows: Ctrl-Shift-T.

On Mac: Command-Shift-T

Bonus: Ctrl-T Opens a new tab that will just sit there waiting for you to do something with it.

That’s it for today! Unless you are interested in exploring more Mac or Windows Keyboard Shortcuts.